Links and References




Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Garvey M, et al. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: clinical description of the first 50 cases. The American journal of psychiatry. Feb 1998; 155(2):264-271.

Murphy ML, Pichichero ME. Prospective identification and treatment of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. Apr 2002; 156(4):356-361.

Diagnostics criteria

Swedo SE, J.F. Leckman, and N.R. Rose. From Research Subgroup to Clinical Syndrome: Modifying the PANDAS Criteria to Descride PANS (Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome). Pediatric Theraputics 2. 2012.


Perlmutter SJ, Leitman SF, Garvey MA, et al. Therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin for obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorders in childhood. Lancet. Oct 2 1999;354(9185):1153-1158.

Beta-Tubulin antibodies, Dopamin 1 antibodies, Dopamin 2 antibodies, Lyso GM1 antibodies, CAM-kinase activity and Interpretation of results.

Lim et al. Comments on the dopamine 2 receptor antibodies of Oxford researchers in autoimmune diseases in neurology. Brain 2012.

Dale et al. Not PANDAS researchers but open to OCD may be autoimmune. Dopamine-2 receptor. Brain, 2012, 135: 3453 to 3468.

Dale et al. Independent overview. Not PANDAS researchers but open to OCD may be autoimmune. J Child Neurol. 2012 Nov; 27 (11):1470-81.

Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Snider LA, Cunningham MW. Antibody-mediated neuronal cell signaling in behavior and movement disorders. Journal of Neuroimmunology. Oct 2006; 179(1-2):173-179.

Kirvan CA, Cox CJ, Swedo SE, Cunningham MW. Tubulin is a neuronal target of autoantibodies in Sydenham’s chorea. J Immunol. Jun 1 2007; 178(11):7412-7421.

Kirvan CA, Swedo SE, Heuser JS, Cunningham MW. Mimicry and autoantibody-mediated neuronal cell signaling in Sydenham chorea. Nature medicine. Jul 2003;9(7):914-920.

Krause and Müller. Review on Tourette's syndrom and relation to infections. The Open Neurology Journal, 2012, 6, (Suppl 1-M8) 124-128. 

Leckman JF, King RA, Gilbert DL, et al. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a prospective longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Feb 2011; 50(2):108-118 e103.

Brimberg L, Benhar I, Mascaro-Blanco A, et al. Behavioral, pharmacological, and immunological abnormalities after streptococcal exposure: a novel rat model of Sydenham chorea and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Aug 2012; 37(9):2076-2087.

Other selected references

Allen AJ, Leonard HL, Swedo SE. Case study: a new infection-triggered, autoimmune subtype of pediatric OCD and Tourette’s syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995 34: 307-311.

Besiroglu L, Agargun MY, Ozbebit O, Sozen M, Dilek I, Gulec M. [Therapeutic response to plasmapheresis in four cases with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tic disorder triggered by streptococcal infections]. Turk psikiyatri dergisi = Turkish journal of psychiatry. Fall 2007; 18(3):270-276.

Bombaci M, Grifantini R, Mora M, et al. Protein array profiling of tic patient sera reveals a broad range and enhanced immune response against Group A Streptococcus antigens. PloS one. 2009; 4(7):e6332.

Chapman AH, Pilkey L, Gibbons MJ. A psychosomatic study of eight children with Sydenham’s chorea. Pediatrics. Apr 1958; 21(4):582-595.

Church AJ, Dale RC, Lees AJ, Giovannoni G, Robertson MM. Tourette’s syndrome: a cross sectional study to examine the PANDAS hypothesis. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. May 2003; 74(5):602-607.

Cleary PP, Zhang Y, Park HS. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue & M cells, a window to persistent streptococcal infections. The Indian journal of medical research. May 2004; 119 Suppl:57-60.

Cohen DJ, Leckman JF. Developmental psychopathology and neurobiology of Tourette’s syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Jan 1994; 33(1):2-

Cohen DJ, Leckman JF, Pauls D. Neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood: Tourette’s syndrome as a model. Acta Paediatr Suppl. Jul 1997; 422:106-111.

Cohen DJ, Leckman JF. Tourette’s syndrome. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Apr 3 1991; 265(13):1738.

Cunningham MW. Streptococcus and rheumatic fever. Current opinion in rheumatology. Jul 2012; 24(4):408-416.

Dale RC, Church AJ, Heyman I. Striatal encephalitis after varicella zoster infection complicated by Tourettism. Movement disorders: official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. Dec 2003; 18(12):1554-1556.

Dale RC, Heyman I, Giovannoni G, Church AW. Incidence of anti-brain antibodies in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science. Oct 2005; 187:314-319.

Dale RC, Merheb V, Pillai S, et al. Antibodies to surface dopamine-2 receptor in autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders. Brain: a journal of neurology. Nov 2012; 135(Pt 11):3453-3468.

Fallon BA, Nields JA, Parsons B, Liebowitz MR, Klein DF. Psychiatric manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. Jul 1993; 54(7):263-268.

Findley DB, Leckman JF, Katsovich L, et al. Development of the Yale Children’s Global Stress Index (YCGSI) and its application in children and adolescents ith Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Apr 2003; 42(4):450-457.

Freeman JM, Aron AM, Collard JE, Mackay MC. The Emotional Correlates of Sydenham’s chorea. Pediatrics. Jan 1965; 35:42-49.

Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, Garvey MA, Perlmutter S, Swedo SE. MRI assessment of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder or tics associated with streptococcal infection. The American journal of psychiatry. Feb 2000; 157(2):281-283.

Grimshaw L. Obsessional Disorder and Neurological Illness. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. Jun 1964;27:229-231.

Hoekstra PJ, Manson WL, Steenhuis MP, Kallenberg CG, Minderaa RB. Association of common cold with exacerbations in pediatric but not adult patients with tic disorder: a prospective longitudinal study. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Apr 2005; 15(2):285-292.

Hoekstra PJ, Minderaa RB, Kallenberg CG. Lack of effect of intravenous immunoglobulins on tics: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. Apr 2004; 65(4):537-542.

Kansy JW, Katsovich L, McIver KS, et al. Identification of pyruvate kinase as an antigen associated with Tourette syndrome. Journal of neuroimmunology. Dec 2006; 181(1-2):165-176.

Leonard HL, Swedo SE, Garvey M, et al. Postinfectious and other forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. Jul 1999; 8(3):497-511.

Leslie DL, Kozma L, Martin A, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection: a case-control study among privately insured children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Oct 2008; 47(10):1166-1172.

Lin H, Katsovich L, Ghebremichael M, et al. Psychosocial stress predicts future symptom severities in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. Feb 2007; 48(2):157-166.

Mink J, Kurlan R. Acute postinfectious movement and psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of child neurology. Feb 2011; 26(2):214-217.

Muller N, Riedel M, Blendinger C, Oberle K, Jacobs E, Abele-Horn M. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and Tourette’s syndrome. Psychiatry research. Dec 15 2004; 129(2):119-125.

Murphy TK, Sajid M, Soto O, et al. Detecting pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics. Biological psychiatry. Jan 1 2004; 55(1):61-68.

Murphy TK, Storch EA, Lewin AB, Edge PJ, Goodman WK. Clinical factors associated with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. J Pediatr. 2012 Feb; 160(2):314-9.

Nicolson R, Swedo SE, Lenane M, et al. An open trial of plasma exchange in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder without poststreptococcal exacerbations. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Oct 2000; 39(10):1313-1315.

Pavone P, Bianchini R, Parano E, et al. Anti-brain antibodies in PANDAS versus uncomplicated streptococcal infection. Pediatric neurology. Feb 2004; 30(2):107-110.

Sela S, Neeman R, Keller N, Barzilai A. Relationship between asymptomatic carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes and the ability of the strains to adhere to and be internalised by cultured epithelial cells. Journal of medical microbiology. Jun 2000; 49(6):499-502.

Singer HS, Gilbert DL, Wolf DS, Mink JW, Kurlan R. Moving from PANDAS to CANS. The Journal of pediatrics. May 2012; 160(5):725-731.

Snider LA, Swedo SE. PANDAS: current status and directions for research. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 Oct; 9(10):900

Swedo SE, Garvey M, Snider L, Hamilton C, Leonard HL. The PANDAS subgroup: recognition and treatment. CNS spectrums. May 2001; 6(5):419-422, 425-416.

Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Kiessling LS. Speculations on antineuronal antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Pediatrics. Feb 1994; 93(2):323-326.

Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Cheslow DL, et al. High prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with Sydenham’s chorea. The American journal of psychiatry. Feb 1989; 146(2):246-249.

Taranta A, Stollerman GH. The relationship of Sydenham’s chorea to infection with group A streptococci. The American journal of medicine. Feb 1956; 20(2):170-175.

Wang B, Li S, Southern PJ, Cleary PP. Streptococcal modulation of cellular invasion via TGF-beta1 signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb 14 2006; 103(7):2380-2385.


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